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    人造鉆石搶灘市場的成本尷尬

    行情動態 | 來源:中國磨料磨具網 | 發布日期:2017-10-31 查看次數:486

    核心提示:當鉆石可以批量人工培育,將給鉆石市場帶來哪些變化?今年一份摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)報告分析,“在鉆石行業,實驗室培育鉆石不會完全取代天然開采鉆石。該報告指出實驗室培育鉆石會找到合適的市場定位,并提升珠寶市場的整體銷售量”。然而就國內市場而言,“鉆石恒久遠,一顆永流傳”這句以古老傳承、歷史感為賣點的廣告語,仍然根植在國內消費者心中,同為鉆石且結構相同,但價格僅為天然鉆石50的人造

      當鉆石可以批量人工培育,將給鉆石市場帶來哪些變化?今年一份摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)報告分析,“在鉆石行業,實驗室培育鉆石不會完全取代天然開采鉆石。該報告指出實驗室培育鉆石會找到合適的市場定位,并提升珠寶市場的整體銷售量”。然而就國內市場而言,“鉆石恒久遠,一顆永流傳”這句以古老傳承、歷史感為賣點的廣告語,仍然根植在國內消費者心中,同為鉆石且結構相同,但價格僅為天然鉆石50%的人造鉆石,卻少有國內消費者為其買單。雖同為人造,但人造鉆石卻因價格過高難被終端珠寶企業選用,這些都讓人造鉆石的市場突圍之路顯得異常艱難。

      搶灘市場

      上市公司增資人造鉆石

      日前,國內最大人造鉆石生產企業鄭州華晶金剛石股份有限公司(豫金剛石)總經理劉永奇公開表示,公司的大單晶項目正持續推進,大單晶產品的業績貢獻將逐步凸顯。

      據相關資料顯示,鄭州華晶金剛石股份有限公司是一家在工業金剛石制造產業擁有著十幾年歷史的品牌,并在2010年登陸創業板。隨后幾年,受疊加市場競爭加劇以及宏觀經濟增長放緩等影響,工業金剛石毛利率縮水,豫金剛石的利潤出現下滑。2014年起,豫金剛石開始逐步向消費級的人造鉆石轉型。并于去年11月定增發行5.27億股,募資45.67億元,用于年產700萬克拉寶石級鉆石項目和補充流動資金。

      在銷售渠道方面,豫金剛石除了將所生產的合成鉆石毛料銷往國內外的加工企業外,也會生產部分裸鉆、群鑲等成品人造鉆石,為了后期能夠更好地向下游企業和輕奢市場靠攏,豫金剛石還在今年初設立了慕蒂卡珠寶體驗中心,包括近百件項鏈、戒指、耳釘等鉆石珠寶產品。

      對于此次轉型,豫金剛石相關負責人告訴北京商報記者,“公司本身是做工業金剛石起家的,2014年在產品技術實現突破后才有機會開始從事消費級鉆石的相關業務,從鉆石產業鏈看,我們前期處于上游企業,以為生產制造商提供合成鉆石毛料為主,成品鉆的占比并不大。今年下半年開始,希望能夠在生產毛料的基礎上向下游企業邁進,最終期望是產品更加貼近終端消費者。”

      除了國內一些從事工業金剛石生產的公司轉向消費級人造鉆石的生產,市場中還出現了不少主營或專門從事人造鉆石設計制造的企業。

      成本高昂

      施華洛世奇模式難復制

      長久以來,施華洛世奇通過多年的市場培育,以其獨特的設計和精湛的切割工藝讓人造水晶這類成本并不高昂的高鉛玻璃成為輕奢市場的寵兒,不僅價格上讓許多天然珠寶都望塵莫及,更有不少終端珠寶企業都會選用施華洛世奇水晶作為其產品鑲嵌的重要組成部分。然而,同樣是人工合成產物的人造鉆石卻顯得有些“高處不勝寒”,雖然人造鉆石要比天然鉆石價格低廉,但由于人造鉆石在合成時需要相對復雜的工藝,這使得人造鉆石的價格要比人造水晶昂貴得多。

      當談及為何終端珠寶企業會更青睞用施華洛世奇水晶作為鑲嵌的重要組成部分時,Totwoo智能珠寶創始人王潔明表示,“在產品所鑲嵌寶石種類的選擇上,自己也曾想過用人造鉆石替代現在用的施華洛世奇水晶,還特意去了香港的一家生產人造鉆石的工廠進行調研,人造鉆石的磷光效果確實非常好,但是考慮到人造鉆石成本相對偏高、國內消費者對其還比較陌生,以及人們對鉆石消費觀念還停留在‘婚慶’上的緣故,所以最終還是放棄了人造鉆石選擇了施華洛世奇水晶”。

      北京商報記者調查發現,同等規格的鑲嵌鉆石戒指為例,0.3ct的主鉆分數,天然鉆石戒指的價格在13300元左右,而人造鉆石戒指的價格為5000元左右。而在施華洛世奇官網上,一枚水晶戒指的價格僅為1200元左右。

      由此可見,面對人造水晶在珠寶市場高比例的占有率,成本高昂的人造鉆石在價格上顯然不具優勢,對于目前珠寶市場被人造水晶所占據的現狀,上述豫金剛石相關負責人表示,“我們從未想過與人造水晶相抗衡,只是希望能夠推廣鉆石的品質和文化,因為人造鉆石與天然鉆石相比有很大的價格優勢,以往只有小部分消費者能夠接觸到鉆石,隨著人造鉆石的出現和普及,普通的消費者也能夠有機會佩戴鉆石”。

      認知度低

      消費者誤以為人造的就是假的

      盡管與人造水晶相比,人造鉆石不具備價格優勢,但是人造鉆石卻比天然鉆石價格低一半,但這也把消費者帶入了一個誤區,不少消費者會認為人造鉆石就是假鉆石。北大寶石鑒定中心資深鑒定師、評估師何志紅告訴北京商報記者,天然鉆石和人造鉆石都是由碳原子構成的,并且是按照相同的晶體點陣排列,所以它們具有相同的物理性質。只是天然鉆石是在地下經過幾十億年自然生成的,人造鉆石是在實驗室內模擬了地下的環境和條件,在幾個月甚至幾天內生成。專業的鑒定師也很難用肉眼區別,需要有非常高規格的專業鑒別儀器才能進行鑒別,這類人造鉆石與由玻璃制造的“假鉆石”是有根本區別的。

      即便如此,但按照國內的消費習慣來看,大多數消費者往往不會為人造類寶石買單。北京商報記者在采訪過程中發現,消費者依然很難接受人造鉆石這一品類,他們大多表示,在相同價格條件下,更愿意購買黃金或是天然的翡翠玉石等更為保值的珠寶首飾。而原本就是天然鉆石首飾的消費者更加不會成為人造鉆石的受眾。

      何志紅表示,中國消費者對珠寶首飾類的消費習慣還停留在對材料的追求上,對于人工合成珠寶有著排斥的心理,甚至還有消費者認為人造鉆石是否會有殘存的化學物質對身體造成損害。通常情況下,他們更希望能夠購買一些天然的、保值的首飾用于傳代和變現。

      而在西方,人們在購買珠寶首飾時首先考慮是否美觀、體驗是否良好,因此像這樣價格比鉆石便宜很多,卻能達到鉆石磷光效果的人造鉆石已經得到了廣泛的認可,但基于國內的市場環境,無論是在人造鉆石實現技術突破從而降低成本,還是培育消費者心態來說,仍有很長的一段路要走。(北京商報記者/馬嘉會 宗泳杉)

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